As the Mongol Empire expanded it adopted various systems of measurement from different cultures it came across. Most of the Mongol systems of measurement are adopted from either Chinese or Muslim cultures.

Time[edit | edit source]

Hijri Calendar[edit | edit source]

The Mongol Empire uses the solar Hijri calendar when dating. The Hijri calendar is used in Islam when planning the dates of festivals and sacred days, and was gradually adopted as the predominant dating system in the Mongol Empire with the rapid spread of Islam out of Ilkhanate. Other dating systems are still quite common in some parts of the empire (especially in Central and South America) but most official business or publications use the Hijri calendar.

The Mongol Empire uses the solar Hijri calendar (SH), which is not to be confused with the lunar Hijri calendar (AH), in which the year is 11 days shorter. The solar calendar is used because it better aligns with the seasons.

The months of the solar Hijri calendar, along with their respective durations in days, are; Farvardin (31), Ordibehesht (31), Khordad (31), Tir (31), Mordad (31), Shahrivar (31), Mehr (30), Aban (30), Azar (30), Dey (30), Bahman (30), Esfand (29 or 30).

Distance[edit | edit source]

Han Measurement System[edit | edit source]

The Mongol Empire largely uses the Han Dynasty measurement system for distance. Before the Mongol Conquest the Han dynasty system had been used for many centuries is China. Below are the approximate conversions of each measurement of distance.

Unit Equivalent Metric Conversion
Cun - 2.15cm
Chi 10 Cun 21.5cm
Zhang 10 Chi 2.15m
Li 150 Zhang 323m
Tu 150 Li 48.45km

Similarly, these measurements are squared when measuring area and cubed when measuring volume.

Currency[edit | edit source]

Printing block for a Sukhe

Sukhe[edit | edit source]

Despite most Khanates and areas still using their own local currencies, the official currency of the Mongol Empire is the Sukhe. Sukhe comes from 'silver ingot,' due to the fact that, despite the currency being made up of paper money, it was originally backed up by Chinese silver ingots (though a variety of precious metals are used today). The precious metals that back up the paper money are mostly kept under tight guard by the Administration of Monetary Affairs in Karakorum.

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